Chapter 2: Population Policies in Singapore 1960s - 80s
There are 3 parts in this chapter. a, b and c.
a) 1960s - Decreasing Birth rate in S'pore.
b) 1980s - Increasing Birth rate in S'pore.
c) Ageing Population policy.
Population policies in the 1960s - 1970s
Decreasing Birth Rate.
Why? (Reason for this policies made)
1950s - 1960s -> HIGH POPULATION GROWTH --led to-> PROBLEMS.
1) High unemployment.
--> Too many people, too little jobs.
2) Inadequate and overcrowding housing.
--> Too many people in a family.
3) Shortage Education Service.
--> Not enough space for all to have Education.
4) Shortage of health care.
--> Big families
^> 2 parent take care of a lot of child
^> Poor family
^> Not enough care
^> Poor health
^> No money see doctor
(Solution, measure to reduced population growth.)
- Abortion was illegal in the past.
- Help to reduce Birth Rate.
2) Encourage use of contraceptives.
- To control pregnancy and prevent unwanted pregnancy.
- Pregnancy reduced > Birth Rate reduced.
3) Disincentives introduced. --> To discourage birth.
I) No paid maternity leave for 3rd subsequent child
II) No priority to larger families in allocation of govt flat.
III) No Taxed relief for 4th and subsequent child.
Iv) Delivery charge increase with each child.
4) Singapore Family planning and Population Board has been set up.
The 3 five-year plan.
First 5 year --> Emphasized need for small families.
Second 5 years --> Called for families to have just 2 children.
Third 5 year --> Maintain number of children born per women at 2.1
(target achieve in 1975.)
2.1 is the Replacement Rate.
The 2 child is to replace their father and the 0.1 is just in case. Therefore because it is to replace the previous generation so it was called Replacement Rate.
Results in this policy.
Birth rate has went down to 2.1 (replacement rate) from 5.76.
after 1975, birth rate has gone below replacement rate and continue dropping!
- Successful policy > More then achieve.
- Effective Control Measure > More then expected.
- Modernising in Singapore
^> Better economis
^> better education
^> More women in workforce.
^> Women lifestyle change.
^> Delayed marriage.
^> Delayed Birth and motherhood
- Lack of facilities for looking after children.
Question that may ask for Part A
1) How successful was the population policy in 1960s in Singapore.
Part A of population policy in Singapore ends here.
Timeline: 1960s- 1970s.
Achieve target at 1970. Replacement rate.
NEXT IS PART B.
See the next post.
Me nt doin this topic for O's